LAE® (lauric arginate ethyl ester)
The commercial name of ethyl lauroyl arginate is Lauric Arginate. This term has been accepted by the FDA for labelling purposes. Other names commonly used to refer to this substance are LAE® and lauric arginate ethyl ester.
Ethyl lauroyl arginate is a synthetically produced cationic surfactant manufactured in LAMIRSA GROUP premises according to processes patented by the company. The main particularity of ethyl lauroyl arginate is that its building blocks are naturally occurring substances, i.e.: L-arginine, ethanol and lauric acid. Once ethyl lauroyl arginate is ingested by consumers, it is easily hydrolysed within a few minutes in the human body into natural compounds commonly found in the diet. This property is not shared by the other food preservatives currently found in the marketplace like sorbates, benzoates, sulphites, nitrites and nitrates.
Ethyl lauroyl arginate is effective as a preservative against bacteria, yeast and moulds in a wide range of food products because it is able to disrupt the integrity of the cell membranes of these microorganisms (Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96 (5) 903-912 (2004)). Efficacy shown through out MIC’s (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) is extremely high. For instance, in Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria MIC’s are between 8 and 64 μg/ml as an average, and in yeast and mould are between 16 and 128 μg/m. Although these low MIC values, such antimicrobial activity is limited to the cationic features of Ethyl lauroyl arginate when is used in foodstuff. In this sense, when Ethyl lauroyl arginate is used at industrial level, some matrices (meat as an example) make this molecule less effective due to chemical interactions between proteins which are anionic and the arginine moiety of Ethyl lauroyl arginate which is cationic. Thus, in such cases, the Ethyl lauroyl arginate concentration needed is higher (especially inside meat processed products).
Investigations have proved that Ethyl lauroyl arginate causes the inactivation or neutralisation of the endotoxins released by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, in order to mitigate the damage caused by endotoxins in animals and human beings.
Safe and effective products for the treatment of viral infections are constantly needed. In this sense, VEDEQSA has commissioned several investigations to study the efficacy of Ethyl lauroyl arginate against certain virus. The results of these investigations have proved a strong antiviral activity which was specially observed in viruses of Vaccinia, Herpes simplex and bovine parainfluenzae virus types.
VEDEQSA also draws the attention to the fact that lauric arginate has applications in cosmetics as an active ingredient in hygienic soaps, deodorants, oral care and anti-dandruff products, and as a preservative.
The following tables show the minimum inhibitory concentrations of LAE® against different types of microorganisms, mostly pathogens, which give an insight into LAE® wide range of activity and great effectiveness. The results were obtained by Dr. Manresa, from the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Barcelona:
|Alicyclobacillus acidiphilus DSMZ 14558||8|
|Arthrobacter oxydans ATCC 8010||64|
|Bacillus cereus var mycoide ATCC 11778||32|
|Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633||16|
|Clostridium botulinum ATCC 19397||64|
|Clostridium estertheticum (ATCC 51377)||32|
|Clostridium perfringes ATCC 77454||16|
|Clostridium perfringes ATCC 12917||16|
|Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 25601||16|
|Lactobacillus delbrueckkii ssp lactis ATCC 10705||16|
|Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 25302||16|
|Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014||16|
|Listeria monocytogenes B4/97 ||8|
|Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313||32|
|Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 19255||32|
|Microccocus luteus ATCC 9631||128|
|Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 41423||2|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538||8|
|Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750||64|
|Bordetella bronchiseptica ATCC 4617||128|
|Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428||8|
|Citrobacter freundii ATCC 22636||64|
|Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048||32|
|Enterobacter faecalis ATCC 27285||4|
|Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544||32|
|Escherichia coli 0157H7 ATCC 35150||32|
|Escherichia coli ATCC 8739||32|
|Klebsiella pneumoniae var pneumoniae ATCC 4352||32|
|Proteus mirabilis CECT 170||32|
|Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027||32|
|Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13430||32|
|Salmonella cholerasuis ATCC 13076||8|
|Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028||32|
|Shigella dysentariae ATCC 13313||8|
|Serratia marcenses ATCC 10759||32|
|Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 27729||16|
|Vibrio parahaemoliticus ATCC 17802||128|
|Candida albicans ATCC 10231||16|
|Rhodotorula rubra CECT 1158||16|
|Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763||32|
|Aspergillus niger ATCC 14604||32|
|Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 9348||16|
|Gliocadium virens ATCC 4645||32|
|Chaetonium globosum ATCC 6205||16|
|Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 9480||128|
|Penicillium funiculosum CECT 2914||16|
 Isolated from polluted meat by Microbiology Unity, Pharmacy faculty, University of Barcelona.